‘Hope Modi’s US visit will be an action-forcing mechanism … bilateral investment treaty would be a significant milestone’

With the White House having announced that US President Donald Trump will be hosting Prime Minister Narendra Modi later this year in Washington, Ambassador William J Burns, President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and former US Deputy Secretary of State, spoke to Nalin Mehta on what New Delhi can expect from the first bilateral Modi-Trump meeting, Indo-US relations and the shifts in US diplomacy:

The White House said President Trump spoke with PM Modi to congratulate him on the outcome of Uttar Pradesh elections, to express support for Modi’s economic reform agenda, and to say that he was looking forward to hosting the PM in Washington. What are your expectations from the PM’s upcoming visit?

My strong hope is that when it comes to India, the Trump administration will look to sustain and deepen the efforts of its Democratic and Republican predecessors to further strengthen the bilateral partnership and put it to work to address shared global challenges.

I hope this visit will be used as an action-forcing mechanism to check off a number of important items from our shared to-do list.This includes the purchase of a US fighter for India’s armed forces and other defence cooperation items.

It includes continued progress in the economic sphere, where i believe we still have a long way to go to fully realise the promise of our strategic partnership.

Concluding the Bilateral Investment Treaty would be a significant milestone worthy of a significant effort by both governments.

President Trump is fundamentally changing long held pillars of US diplomacy. How will this impact India-US relations which have been recast in the last 15 years under both Democrat and Republican administrations?

You are right that beneath the surface, this Trump administration presents a fundamentally different approach to foreign affairs – a profound, and in my view troubling, deviation from the core elements on which American leadership and international order rest.

The United States, for all its imperfections, has stood for political and economic openness, respect for human dignity, and a sense of possibility. We have demonstrated a willingness to mobilise others to deal with shared problems. And we have invested in the institutions at home and abroad that can get ahead of crises and prevent conflict through wise, long-term investments.

To the extent that we walk away from these ideas, initiatives and institutions at the core of American leadership, i fear that we will see serious and long-term damage to America’s standing in the world, and in turn, to the potential for US-India relations.

What impact do you see of US policies on Asia and the balance of power in the region under President Trump?

Much of President Trump’s foreign policy seems to be reverting to the mainstream on first contact with reality, and that includes his approach to the Asia-Pacific.

But it’s clear that the Trump administration believes the United States is being held hostage in many respects by the very international order it created. It seems to see multilateral trade agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership as constraints rather than opportunities, and international and regional organisations as distracting, if not irrelevant.

That attitude could undermine our capacity and credibility to work together with India to shape a Pacific Century that reflects our shared interests and values.

Carnegie has been in India for a year. How different is working in India compared to other countries?

I have been deeply impressed by what my colleagues in Delhi have accomplished in such a short time. That is not a result of any imports from Washington or any of our global centres in Beijing, Beirut, Brussels or Moscow. It is a consequence of the fact that Carnegie India is led and staffed by extraordinary Indian experts who have a deep stake and commitment to India’s own domestic and international evolution.
Courtesy: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports

Source: http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/academic-interest/hope-modis-us-visit-will-be-an-action-forcing-mechanism-bilateral-investment-treaty-would-be-a-significant-milestone/?utm_source=Popup&utm_medium=Old&utm_campaign=TOIHP

11 Great Doctors Who Made An Impact With Their Significant Contributions

Only people who study medicine understand how vast and difficult the field is. From treating patients to finding a cure to a deadly diseases, doctors have a lot to give to the human kind. Here are eleven doctors who made an impact with their great contribution to the field of medicine.

1. Dr Anandi Gopal Joshi, the first female of Indian origin to study and graduate with a degree in medicine in the United States

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Dr Anandi Gopal Joshi is believed to have been the first woman from India to set foot on American soil and study medicine there. The fact that she fought the orthodox, conservative society to get a medical degree makes her a great achiever. She began her medical education at the age of 19 and graduated with an MD on March 11, 1886, three years after landing in America.

2. Dr Levi Watkins Jr., the first cardiac surgeon who implanted an automatic defibrillator in a human

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We should thank Dr Levi Watkins Jr. for an automatic defibrillator, a device millions of people use today to survive. He was the first black student at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Apart from being a cardiac surgeon, he was also a civil rights activist who stood against racism and injustice. Dr Watkins became the first doctor to put an automatic defibrillator in a human heart in 1980.

3. Dr Mae Jemison, the physician who also became the first black female astronaut in NASA history

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Accomplishments of Dr Mae Jemison must be lauded as she did not stop after getting a doctor’s degree, but she also strived hard to become an engineer in NASA! She first got her chemical engineering degree at Stanford and later on, she studied medicine at Cornell Medical college. After getting inspired by African-American actress Nichelle Nichols, who portrayed Lieutenant Uhura on Star Trek, Dr. Mae decided to apply to NASA’s astronaut program. She then became the first black woman to go to space in 1992.

4. Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, after whom Doctors’ Day is celebrated in India

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It was Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy who first established the Indian Medical Association in 1928. In his memory, 1 July, his birth and death anniversary, is celebrated as Doctors’ Day in India. A close friend and doctor of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr Bidhan has a big contribution behind opening the Indian Institute of Mental Health and Kolkata’s first postgraduate medical college. He was also West Bengal’s second Chief Minister, and a Bharat Ratna awardee.

5. Dr Ben Carson, the neurosurgeon who successfully separated conjoined twins

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In 1986, Ben Carson became the first neurosurgeon who performed the first intrauterine surgical procedure on the brain of a fetal twin. He also led a team of surgeons who completed the first successful separation of twins conjoined at the cranium. At the age of 33, he achieved the feat of being the chief paediatric surgery in US.

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6. Dr Barry Marshall, a Noble Prize winner who made the historic scientific discovery, which stated the presence of bacterium Helicobacter pylori as the root cause for most peptic ulcers

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The Australian physician, along with Dr Robin Warren performed the initial culture of H. pylori and developed their hypothesis related to the bacterial cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Many experiments were held to prove him wrong, but they only confirmed his findings.

7. Dr “Patch” Adams, a doctor and a comedian who made his patients smile

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A physician who is also a comedian is a rare combination. Hunter Doherty “Patch” Adams is one such doctor who organises a group of volunteers from around the world to travel to various countries where they dress as clowns in an effort to bring humour to orphans, patients, and other people. He gained popularity when the Hollywood movie Patch Adams, loosely based on his life, was released.

8. Dr Denton Cooley, the surgeon who performed the world’s first implantation of a total artificial heart

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In 1969, Dr Denton Cooley successfully implanted an artificial heart. He accomplished the almost impossible task without the supervision of his senior, which created a rift between them. The patient, Haskell Karp, lived for 64 hours with the implanted device before it could be replaced with a donor’s heart. However, he died a day after the second operation and questions were raised about the doctor’s decision to implant the artificial device in the first place.

9. Max Theiler, a South African-American virologist who developed a vaccine against yellow fever

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For his crusade against Yellow fever, Max Theiler received a Nobel Prize in 1951. The Yellow Fever which claimed many lives was almost undefeatable. Theiler and his team developed the first strain of the virus which led to the development of a vaccine against yellow fever in 1937.

10. Samuel Hahnemann, a German physician who founded the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy

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A physician who was also a language translator, Samuel Hahnemann developed homeopathy as a system of alternative medicine. He first used the term ‘homeopathy’ in his essay Indications of the Homeopathic Employment of Medicines in Ordinary Practice, published in Hufeland’s Journal in 1807.

11. Dr Upendranath Brahmachari, who discovered Urea Stibamine, an organic antimonial compound that played a vital role in the treatment of Kala-azar

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Dr Brahmachari is renowned for his outstanding contributions to medical science, particularly in the treatment of Kala-azar by discovering ‘Urea Stibamine’. Around 1924, he founded the Brahmachari Research Institute at his own residence in Kolkata. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize, however he didn’t win the prestigious prize.
Courtesy: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports

Source: http://www.indiatimes.com/culture/who-we-are/11-great-doctors-who-made-an-impact-with-their-significant-contributions-272488.html